Part I [A to C ]
- Abelard, Peter (c.1079 1442) noted for his ability as a dialectian and for his contribution to the problems of Universals.
Adorno, Theodor W. (1903 1969) part of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory.
Aesthetics long considered one of the departments of philosophy.
African philosophy, a variant of primitive philosophy
Albert the Great (1206 1280) aka Albert Magnus became the Bishop of Ratisbon.
Alexander, Samuel (1859 1938) brought up in the traditions of idealism and realism.
Alienation: in the twentieth century the term expanded to describe the maladies of the modern world.
Althusser L. mostly known for his discussions in the 1960s on Marxist orthodoxy
Analysis, the resolution of a complex whole into its parts.
Analytic: the term was introduce by Kant.
Analytic Philosophy is presently the dominant academic tradition in the Western Anglosphere.
- Anaxagoras of Clazomenζ lived c. 450 BC wrote Nature.
Anaximander of Miletus lived c. 560 BC. a philosopher and scientist
Anaximenes of Miletus lived c. 545 worked on Thales ideas of what the world was made.
Anderson, John (1893 1962) a Scottish philosopher who became a Professor at the University of Sydney.
Animals, the various philosophical ideas on what is and animal and homo sapien.
Anscombe, G.E.M.Elizabeth, a highly regarded twentieth century philosophical teacher.
Anselm of Canterbury (1033 1109) one of the early systematic thinkers of the Middle Ages.
Antisthenes (c. 444BC c. 366 BC) close friend of Socrates and critic of Plato
Applied Ethics, the discussion of various philosophers on Ethics.
a prior is Latin for from what comes before.
Aquinas Thomas (c. 1225 1274) a major contibutor to the systematic method who wrote on Logic, theoretical philosophy and moral philosophy.
Arendt, Hannah (1906 1975), a political theorist who wrote The Origins of Totalitarianism.
Aristippus of Cyrene (c. 435 356 BC)a Sophist and founder of the Cyrenic school of philosophy.
Aristotle (384 322 BC) His ideas are contained in Categories, Form and Matter, Actuality and Potentiality, the Four Causes, Logic, Physics, Biology, Psychology, Metaphysics, Ethics, Politics, Poetics.
Atomism is an explanatory discussion of matter devised by ancient Greeks, Leucippus, Democritus, Epicurus and the Roman poet Lucretius.
Augustine (354 -430) Saint who came late to early Christianity after a voyage through rhetoric, scepticism and neoplatonism.
Austin, John Langshaw (1911 1960) had a considerable influence on the development of analytic philosophy.
Ayer, Sir Alfred Jules (1910 1989) author of Language, Truth and Logic (1936)
Bachelard, Gaston (1884 1962) French philosopher and important historian of science.
Bacon, Francis (1561 1626) of his many works, his main contribution is in the application of the scientific method to philosophy.
Bacon, Roger (c. 1214 c. 1292) worked on the teaching of Christian wisdom using Greek and Arab science and philosophy.
Beauvoir Simone de (1908 1986) a key figure in French existentialism and a founding theorist of feminism.
Benjamin Walter (1892 1940) associated with the Frankfurt School which published his essays.
- Bentham Jeremy (1748 1832) Bentham famously substituted clear expressions for unclear ones.
Berdyaev Nicholas (1874 1948) a religious thinker.
Bergson Henri Louis (1859 1941) an extensive writer on philosophy.
Berkeley George (1685 1753) an important English philosopher who whilst writing extensively had attempted, unsuccessfully to set up a university in Bermuda for the American colonists and native indians.
Black Max a twentieth century philosopher whose main works are The Nature of Mathematics (1950) and The Labyrinth of Language (1968)
Blanshard Brand, a prominent American philosopher in the twentieth century whose main work was in The Nature of Thought (1939).
Bloch Ernst (1885 1977) was a German Marxist philosopher of Hope and Utopia.
Boethius Anicius Manlius Severenus (c. 480 c. 524) his most celebrated work was De Consolatione Philosophiζ.
Bonaventura (1221 1274) aka John of Fidanza, a Franciscan Theologian.
Boole George (1815 1864) was self-educated and became an acknowledged mathematician.
Bosanquet Bernard (1848 1923) was the last British philosopher to work out a complete system of philosophy.
Bradley Francis Herbert (1846 1924) a research fellow of Merton College who lived his entire adult life at Oxford.
Braithwaite Richard Bevan (1900 1988) mainly a philosopher in science.
Bretano Franz (1838 1916) one of his important publications was Psychology from the Ethical Standpoint (1874 and 1911).
Butler Joseph (1692 1752) is important in English moral philosophy and philosophy of religion.
Catejan Thomas de Vio (1468 1534) was, inter alia the classic commentator on the summa theologica of Thomas Aquinas.
Cambridge Platonists, a group of English philosophical theologians mostly Puritans.
Carnap Rudolph (1891 1970) a leading exponent of logical positivism.
Categories. Aristotle borrowed categoria from legal parlance where it meant accusation to stretch its meaning to anything which could be asserted truly or falsely.
Chomsky Noam, a twentieth century American linguist who revolutionised linguistics by centring it on grammar.
Chrysippus (c. 280 c. 207 BC) possessed a virtuosity in dialectic and logic.
Cicero Marcus Tullius (106 43 BC) a Roman lawyer, politician and writer.
Clarke Samuel (1675 1729) an English philosopher who championed Newtonian philosophy.
Cohen Morris R. (1880 1947) emigrated from Russia to teach philosophy in New York.
- Collingwood Robin George ( 1889 1943) spent all of his working life at Oxford and eventually became Professor of Metaphysics.
Comte Isidore-Auguste-Marie Franηois-Xavier (1798 1857) whose major work in a chequred life was Course on Positive Philosophy.
Conceptualism is the view that the objects of thought and the meanings of general terms are concepts, these being mental entities which exist only in the minds and are formed and constructed by them.
Condillac Etienne Bonnot de (1715 1780) his first book was the Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge.
Condorcet Marie-Jean-Antoine-Nicolas Caritat, Marquis de (1743 1794) apart from his many works he is particulary known as a philosophical theorist of progress.
Cratylus of Athens was a Sophist who lived around 410 BC.
Croce Benedetto (1866 1952) his main fame is for his work in aesthetics.
Cudworth Ralph (1617 1688) generally thought of as the most distinguished of the Cambridge Platonists.
Cynicism is a philosophical movement started in the second half of the fourth century by Diogenes of Sinope.
Cyrenaics, a school of hedonistic philosophy founded by Aristippus Cyrene, a friend of Socrates.
Part II [D to H]
Davidson Donald a twentieth century American philosopher who is one of the most influential analytic philosophers.
Deduction is one of the technical terms used in logic.
Deleuze Giles is a twentieth century French philosopher who started his career as a historian of philosophy.
Democritus lived in fifth century Greece and was one of the founders of atomic theory.
Deontology where the fact of duty is a fundamental of moral thought.
Derrida Jacques, a twentieth century French philosopher recognised as a remarkable original voice in philosophy.
Descartes Renι (1596 1650) an influential philosopher and natural scientist.
Determinism which states that any event is an instance of some law of nature.
Dewey John (1859 1952) an American philosopher about whom it is said, inter alia to have replaced truth with value.
Dialectic from the Greek meaning to converse which originally meant the art of conversation, discussion or debate.
Diderot Denis (1713 1784) was an empiricist accepting scientific facts and rejecting all metaphysical systems.
Dilthey Wilhelm (1833 1911) a German philosopher best known for his writings on the theories of history and human sciences.
Diogenes lived in fourth century Greece and was a prototype of Cynicism.
Dualism is any system of thought which divides everything in some way into two categories.
Ducasse Curt John (1881 1969) whose most important work was Nature, Mind and Death (1951)
Duhem Pierre (1861 1916) a French philosopher of science.
Dummett Michael a twentieth century English philosopher of mathematics.
Edwards Jonathon (1703 1758) a most highly regarded American philosopher.
Eleatics the name given to the philosopher, Parmenides and his follower Zeno.
Emotivism a doctrine most associated with logical positivism.
Empedocles lived in Greece c.450 BC. He was a doctor and a keen democrat.
Empiricism in philosophy means that all knowledge is derived from experience.
Encyclopedists produced a seventeen folio edition of the works of French intellectuals and philosophers.
Engels Friederich (1820 1895) a friend and financial supporter of Karl Marx.
Epictetus (c. 55 c. 135) His work had a strong influence on pagan and Christian thought.
Epicurus (342 270 BC) whose work is often misunderstood and misrepresented.
Epistemology the theory of knowledge.
Erigena John Scotus (c. 810 c.877) an Irish monk whose chief work was Of the Division of Labour.
Ethics: morals and descriptive ethics.
Existentialism a philosophical trend whose central figure is Heidigger.
Fallacy the term is used in logic to refer to an invalid arguement.
Feuerbach Ludwig Andreas (1804 1872) best known for his Essence of Christianity (1841)
Feyeraband Paul twentieth century pilosopher in science.
Fichte Johann Gottlieb (1762 1814) his ethical views were developed in his Theory of Morals (1798)
Foot Philippa, Twentieth century English moral philosopher.
Foucault Michel (1926 1984) his work is a fusion of philosophical and historical investigations
Frankfurt School: the Institute of Social Research founded as an autonomous section of the University of Frankfurt in 1923.
Frege Gottlob (1848 1925) founder of modern mathematical logic
Gadamer Hans-Georg twentieth century philosopher developed hermeneutics.
Gassendi Pierre (1592 1655) an influence of Hobbes and Descartes
Gender the discussion of its differences with the concept of sex
Gilson Etienne Henri (1884 1978) an authority on mediζval philosophy
Goodman Nelson a twentieth century American philosopher of language.
Gramsci Antonio (1891 1937) an Italian marxist
Green Thomas Hill (1836 1882) English philosopher who promoted the works of Kant and Hegel.
Grotius Hugo (1583 1645) a noted influential Dutch thinker
Habermas Jurgen 20th century marxist member of the Frankfurt School
Hamilton Sir William (1788 1856) Scottish philosopher; his main work is the Philosophy of the Unconditioned (1829)
Hare Richard Mervyn 20th century English moral philosopher.
Hartmann Karl-Robert-Eduard von (1842 1906) known chiefly for Philosophy of the Unconscious (1869)
Hartmann Nicolai (1882 1950) a speculative metaphysician in the grand style
Hedonism from the Greek hedone pleasure.
Hegel Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770 1831) one of the most influential philosophers of all time.
Heidigger Martin (1889 1976) a life long pre-occupation with the question of being
Heraclitus of Ephesus lived c.500 BC believed that things in the world were divided into opposites.
Hermeneutics, the theory and practice of interpretation (Greek hermenia).
Hobbes Thomas (1588 1679) saw philosophy as a necessary preliminary to rational government
Holism (Greek holos whole) the thesis is that wholes are more than the sum of their parts.
Horkheimer Max (1895 1973) leading architect of the Frankfurt School
Humanism an umbrella term to describe any thought stressing the centrality of Man
Hume David (1711 1776) Scottish philosopher, his major work at age 26 was
A Treatise of Human Nature
Husserl Edmund (1859 1938) founder of the movement, Phenomenology
Part III [I to P]
Idealism philosophical use differs from common usage; physical objects can have no existence apart from a mind
Ideology a controversial marxist term
Induction a technical term used in logic
James William (1842 1910) American psychologist and philosopher
Jaspers Karl (1883 1969) a senior exponent of German existentialism
Jevons William Stanley (1835 1882) his Principles of Science is a comrehensive work on the logic of induction
John of Paris aka Jean Quidort an able political philosopher
Jurisprudence related groups of studies about law not gained from knowledge of a legal system
Kant Immanuel (1724 1804) his main work is Critical Philosophy.
Kierkeggard Sφren Aabye (1813 -1855) greatly influence both Heidigger and Sartre.
Lacan Jacques (1901 1981) a controversial and influential psychoanalyst
Leibnitz Gottfried Wilhelm (1646 1716) an influential German philosopher
Lenin Ulyanov V. I (1870 1924) Bolshevik leader and sometime philosopher
Lewis Clarence I. ((1883 1964) made fundamental contributions to mathematical logic and the theory of knowledge
Libertarianism which attempts to vindicate freedom of the will
Locke John (1632 1704) his Essay is his most important work
Logic is the theory of proof
Logical Positivism a philosophical movement emanating from the Vienna Circle.
Lukαcs Georg (1885 1971) a Hungarian marxist
Mach Ernst (1838 -1916) mportance is as a philosopher and methodologist of science
MacIntyre Alasdair a twentieth century Scot Irish philosopher who wrote Marxism and Christianity.
McTaggart John Ellis (1866 -1925) an idealist and systematic metaphysician.
Machiavelli Niccolς (1469 -1527) a gifted political philosopher; main work The Prince
Maimonides (1135 1204) wrote The Guide of the Perplexed.
Marcel Gabriel (1889 1973) his Gifford lecture in 1950 was titled The Mystery of Being.
Marcus Aurelius Antonius (121 180) Roman Emperor and philosopher
Marcuse Herbert (1898 1979) developed his own version of critical marxism
Maritain Jacques (1882 1973) best known work, the Degrees of Knowledge (1932)
Marx Karl Heinrich (1818 1883) most famous works, Capital and the Communist Manifesto.
Materialism, best known form is speculative atomism
Mathematics appears to be a refutation of the empiricist thesis that that all knowledge is based on sense-experience.
Meinong Alexius (1853 1920) main interest in his doctrine is in Object Theory.Merlaeu-Ponty Maurice (1907 1961) a French phenomenologist
Metaphilosophy theory about the nature of philosophy
Metaphor the application to one thing of a name belonging to another thing.
Metaphysics is described by some as that part of philosophy which has the greatest pretensions and is exposed to the greatest suspicions.
Mill James (1773 1836) a Scottish philosopher whose works include Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829)
Mill John Stuart (1806 1873) considered a main link between liberal thought in England and the outside world.
Mises Richard von (1883 1953) a theorist on Probability and Political mind-sets
Monism any system where there is only one substance.
Moore George Edward (1873 1958) highly influential philosopher
Neoplatonism designates the last creative effort of pagan antiquity.
Nietzsche Friederich (1844 1900) profoundly influenced european philosophy
Pantheism doctrine that God and Nature are one.
Pascal Blaise (1623 1662) French mathematician, scientist and theologian
Peirce Charles Sanders (1839 1914) noted for his papers published postumously, the Collected Papers of C. S. Peirce in 8 volumes
Peter of Spain lived in the thirteenth century and was elected to the Papacy in 1276 as John XXI
Phenomenonalism that human knowledge is confined to appearances.
Phenomenonology signifies a descriptive philosophy of experience
Philosophy of Mind is a problem area related to the English word Mind being near impossible easily to translate accurately into other languages.
Philosophy of Science covers all aspects of the subject
Plato (c. 427 c. 347 BC) leaving politics he moved to philosophy under the influence of Socrates
Plotinus (205 - 270 AD) originator of neoplatonism
Political Economy a school of social theory
Political Philosophy a good discussion of all aspects.
Popper Sir Karl R. 20th century philosopher in the field of science
Positivism founded in 19th century by Auguste Comte
Pragmatism litle used word in English until used by C.S.Pierce in America
Pre-Socratics the earliest Greek thinkers discussed in detail
Price Richard (1723 1791) English theologian and philosopher
Psychoanalysis invented in 1890s by Sigmund Freud
Pythagoras of Samos Greek philosopher who lived c. 530 BC
Part IV [Q to Z]
Quine Willard V. O. 20th century American logician and philosopher
Rationalism characteristic of philosophy where we obtain substantial knowledge without any empirical premise
Rawls John 20th century American philosopher who argues that political value is individual rights
Realism view that some things exist independently of any mind
Reid Thomas (1710 -1796) originator of Scottish philosophy of common sense
Relativism view that man is the measure of all things
Relativity group of theories developed by Albert Einstein
Religion are our lives significant? If so how?
Ricoeur Paul 20th century French phenomenologist
Rorty Richard 20th century American philosopher of metaphilosophy
Rousseau Jean-Jacques (1712 -1778) an influential 18th century writer
Royce Josiah (1855 1916) American spokesman for Idealism
Russell Bertrand Arthur William, third Earl Russell (1872 1970) a British empiricist
Ryle Gilbert (1900 1976) influential British philosopher and teacher
Sartre Jean-Paul (1905 1980) highly original thinker and existenialist
Saussure Ferdinand de (1857 1913) Swiss philologist who founded structural linguistics
Scepticism holds that the possibilities of knowledge is limited
Sceptics a discussion of them and their structure
Schelling Friedrich W.J. (1775 1854) influential in German idealism
Schiller Ferdinand Canning Scott (1864 1937) influential English philosopher in the field of pragmatic philosophy
Schlick Freidrich Albert Moritz (1882 1936) member of the Vienna Circle.
Schopenhauer Arthur (1788 1860) a German metaphysician
Scotus John Duns (c. 1266 1308) a Scottish Franciscan philosopher
Seneca Lucius Annζus (c. 5 BC 65 AD) a Roman Stoic
Sense-data (plural: Sense-datum) term for immediate object of sense-perception.
Sidgwick Henry (1828 1900) English philosopher
Smith Adam (1723 1790) Scottish one of the greatest philosophers of his time
Social Contract compacts made between rulers and ruled
Socrates (469 399 BC) Greek philosopher who is known mostly by others writings
Solipsism theory that what we perceive is a dream
Sophists fifth century Greeks offering higher education
Spencer Herbert (1820 1903) devised system of synthetic philosophy
Spinoza Benedict de (1632 1677) a towering presence in his time
Stevenson Charles Leslie 20th century American best known for his Ethics and Language (1944)
Stoicism the dominant philosophy of the Hellenistic-Roman period
Strawson Peter Frederick 20th century English philosopher and logician
Subjectivism that the truth of statements depends on the mental state of the person making the statements
Thales of Miletus; he accurately predicted an eclipse c. 585-4 BC
Theism belief that there is an omnipotent God
Theophrastus (c. 370 BC c.286 BC) respected student of Aristotle
Toulmin Stephen Edelston 20th century English philosopher
Transcendental Arguments move from a certain kind of knowledge is possible to that a priori conditions of its possibility must be fulfilled
Truth a discussion of the several philosophical views
Universals the abstracts e.g. qualities, relations, numbers et cetera
Utilitarianism a theory of ethics
Venn John (1834 1923) an English logician
Vienna Circle group of logical empiricists who belonged to the University of Vienna in the 1920s -1930s
Vitoria Francis de born between 1483 and 1486 a taught scholastic philosophy
Ward James (1843 1925) English philosopher wrote on philosophy and psychology
Weil Simone (1909 1943) French philosopher known for her Christian and mystical doctrines
Whewell William (1794 1866) pioneered study of the scientific method
Whitehead Alfred North (1861 1947) English philosopher and mathematician
William of Ockham 14th century English scholastic philosopher
Wilson John Cook (1849 1915) professor of logic at Oxford
Wittgenstein Ludwig Josef Johann (1889 -1951) an engineer who became a philosopher of mathematics
Xenophanes (c. 570 BC c. 475 BC) Greek poet and thinker
Zeno of Citium, Cyprus (c. 333 BC c.262 BC) founder of Stoicism
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